Ergonomics , also know as Human Factors, is the study of
human capabilities in relationship to work demands. This area is
being studied in order to improve human performance, and provide a more
comfortable work atmosphere. We no longer try to fit the human to
the machine, but the machine to the human. These studies not only
apply to things like furniture and hardware; now these ergonomic
guidelines are being applied in web development, finding the best sizes
and locations for every detail of the webpages you see online.
- Fitts, P. M. (1954). The information capacity of the
human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement.
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 381-391.
- Welford, A. T. (1968). Fundamentals of Skill.
- MacKenzie, I. S. (1989). A note on the information-theoretic basis
for Fitts' law. Journal of Motor Behavior, 21, 323-330.
- Mackenzie, I. S. Fitts'
Law as a Performance Model in Human-Computer Interaction. PhD
thesis, University of Toronto, 1991.
- MacKenzie, I. S. and Buxton, W. Extending
Fitts' Law to Two-Dimensional Tasks. In CHI '92 Conference of Human
Factors in Computing Systems, 1992, pp. 219-226.
Summary: Fitts' Law is
designed for motion in one dimension only. However, most
practical applications of human movement involve motion in at least
two dimensions. With rectangle shaped targets,
D is still the distance to the center of the
target, but it is unclear what to use for W. If the
approach angle creates a vector parallel to one of the sides, it is
simple to choose the value for W. However, if this is not
the case, there are four other models to consider: W+H, W*H,
SMALLER-OF, and W'. The W+H and W*H
models did not have significantly better correlations than the STATUS
model. The SMALLER-OF model chooses the smaller of the two
dimensions to use as W, indicating the accuracy demands of
the task. W' uses the width of the target along an
approach vector, retaining the one dimensionality of the model.
When comparing these models with the STATUS QUO model,
the correlations of the SMALLER-OF and W' models did not
differ significantly from eachother, but each had a higher correlation
than the STATUS QUO model.
MacKenzie IS. Movement
time prediction in human-computer interfaces. [Conference
Paper] Proceedings. Graphics Interface '92. Canadian Inf. Process. Soc.
1992, pp.140-50. Toronto, Ont., Canada.
MacKenzie, I. S., & Buxton, W. (1994). The
prediction of pointing and dragging times in graphical user interfaces.
Interacting with Computers, 6, 213-227.
Accot, J., & Zhai, S. (1997). Beyond Fitts' law: Models
for trajectory-based HCI tasks.
Proceedings of the CHI '97
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM,
Peter Oel, Paul Schmidt & Alfred Schmitt(2001). Time
Prediction of Mouse-based Cursor movements. AFIHM-BCS Conference on
Human-Computer Interaction IHM-HCI'2001. Lille, France, Sept. 10-14,
2001. Volume II, 37-40
Summary: Fitts' Law is widely used as a
predictor for movement time of mouse based cursor transfers between
objects in a graphical user interface. However, Fitts' Law does not
provide an accurate representation for low values of I nor for small
target areas. This paper proposes a new power model that
describes movement time within classes of different Ws. The
best fit model is represented by MT=h(w)Dk(w). h(W)
and k(W) are replaced by regression models that best fit the
experimental data. The final power law is given by MT=(aWb)Dc+dlog2(W)
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